Monday, May 26, 2014

9. The Muslim Brotherhood in North America (Glossary, Bibliography)


Caliph: a spiritual leader of Islam, claiming succession from Muhammad or any of the former Muslim rulers of Baghdad (until 1258) and of the Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until 1924).[i]
Caliphate: The rank, jurisdiction, or government of a caliph.[ii]
Civilization Jihad:  As used by the Muslim Brotherhood and explained in the 1991 General Memorandum, this is the process of eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and "sabotaging" its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion is made victorious over all other religions.  
Dawah (also Dawa) The practice or policy of conveying the message of Islam to non-Muslims.[iii]  It is one of the key principles and objectives of the Muslim Brotherhood.  As noted by the leading Ikhwani sholar Youssef Qaradawi:  Conquest through dawah, that is what we hope for….We will conquer Europe, we will conquer America, not through the sword but through dawah.[iv]
General Guide:  The leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. The current General Guide is Mohammad Badie who is held in an Egyptian jail.
Hadith:  This is often translated as “tradition” and refers to the deeds and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).  There are a variety of books and writings consisting of material based on those that either knew the prophet or recalled how he spoke or acted. 
Ikhwani:  One who is an adherent of the Muslim Brotherhood.
IkhwanWeb:  The official English language website of the Muslim Brotherhood (
Jihad:  The term jihad has many meanings depending on the context and who is using the term. It can mean an inner struggle to improve one’s self (greater jihad) or it can mean a war or struggle against unbelievers (lesser jihad).
Masul:  A leader or one who occupies a leadership role.
Nahda:  Literally translated as “renaissance.”  When used in the context of the Muslim Brotherhood, it refers to the political program of how the Muslim Brotherhood would go about running a society.  In Egypt, the term referred to the intended program as laid out by Mohammed Khairat Saad el-Shater,  a senior member of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Night Journey:  A reference to the Isra and Mi'raj which was the journey of the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH) where in a single night he traveled to what is now called the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem/Al Quds and then ascended to heaven to meet with other prophets before returning to earth. It is this event that makes Jerusalem (Al Quds) one of the three holy sites of Islam.
Qutbist:  One who follows the teaching and ideology of Sayyid Qutb.  The term is often used in the pejorative sense and implies one who is will to use harsh measures or violence to achieve an Islamic caliphate.
Salafist/Salafi:  Salafism is a movement in Sunni Islam which is derived from the term salaf meaning "predecessors" or "ancestors."  In general, a salafist is one who shapes his beliefs and lifestyle on the earliest Muslims who existed at the time of the Prophet Mohamed (PBUH).   This is based on a hadith that says “The people of my own generation are the best, then those who come after them, and then those of the next generation.”   While many self-declared salafists are non-violent in their outlook, some salafist movement support the use of violence to obtain a political ends.
Settlement:  According to Zeid Noman of the Muslim Brotherhood:  By "settlement of the Dawa'a", the Muslim Brotherhood Dawa'a is meant. It is not meant to spread Islam as spread of Islam is a general thing and it is indeed a goal for each Muslim in general terms. The second thing is the settlement of the Dawa'a and finding permanent fundamentals in the cities where Ikhwans now live in order to, in order for them to be the meeting points for the coming brothers.
Sharia Law:  Islamic law based on the Qur’an. Depending on the interpretation, the law could be relatively benign or harsh.  There is no definitive version of Sharia, rather it is a matter of interpretation.  The Qur’an has approximately 500 verse which can be interpreted as laying out matters of law and lifestyle.  Typically about 140 to 150 of these are quoted as forming the basis for Sharia law. 
Shia or Shi’te: A member of one of the two largest religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him.[v]
Shirk:  Greater Shirk:  This means ascribing to someone other than Allah something that belongs only to Allah, such as Lordship (ruboobiyyah), divinity (uloohiyyah) and the divine names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat).    Lesser Shirk:  This includes everything that may lead to major shirk, or which is described in the texts as being shirk, but does not reach the extent of being major shirk.[vi] 
Shura Council:  A committee of leaders, roughly comparable to a board of directors or a leadership council.
Sufi: A member of an ascetic, mystical Muslim sect.[vii]
Sunni:  a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam, regarding the first four caliphs as legitimate successors of Muhammad and stressing the importance of Sunna as a basis for law.[viii]
Wahhabi:  A follower of ʿAbd al-Wahhab (1703–1792), who stringently opposed all practices not sanctioned by the Koran. The Wahhabis, founded in the 18th century, are the most conservative Muslim group and are today found mainly in Saudi Arabia.  Someone who is radical and espouse violence within this line of thought can be called a “Wahabist.”  When someone is South Asia refers to the “Arabization of Islam”[ix] they are often referring to the influence of the Wahabis which has been spread by money provided by the Saudi government.
Waqf:  An institution comparable to a trust fund or an endowment.[x]  

Bibliography of Suggested Readings: The Muslim Brotherhood
Perspectives on Terrorism[xi] is a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies (ISSN 2334-3745 Online).  The journal recently published a bibliography of the Muslim Brotherhood as part of their Bibliographic Series of Perspectives on Terrorism - BSPT-JT-2014-2.  The Editor in Chief is Dr. Alex Schmid[xii] and the Co-Editor is Dr. James Forest[xiii].
This bibliography can be seen online at: or at

Dr. Judith Tinnes
The bibliography was compiled and selected by Judith Tinnes, Ph.D.  She studied Information Science and New German Literature and Linguistics at the Saarland University (Germany). Her doctoral thesis dealt with Internet usage of Islamist terrorists and insurgents. While working for several research support organisations, she has gained expertise in information retrieval, librarianship and electronic publishing. Currently she works in the Research & Development department of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) ( for the open-access publishing project PsychOpen ( In her spare time, she works as an Editorial Assistant for ‘Perspectives on Terrorism’.
This bibliography contains journal articles, book chapters, books, edited volumes, theses, grey literature, bibliographies and other resources on the Muslim Brotherhood. It is not restricted to a particular time period and covers publications up to early March, 2014. The literature has been retrieved by manually browsing recent publications of more than 200 core and periphery sources in the field of terrorism studies. Additionally, full-text and reference retrieval tools have been employed for expanding the pool of sources and locating older publications.
Keywords: bibliography, resources, literature, Muslim Brotherhood, al-ʾIkḫwān al-Muslimūn

[ix] Among many other press and academic articles, see  Gurmukh Singh, Pakistan is paying the price for Arabization:
[xii] See a bio of Dr. Schmid on the staff page of International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague:

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